The earliest bread was made in or around 8000BC in the middle east, specially Egypt.
The quern was the first known grinding tool. Grain was crushed and the bakers produced what we now commonly recognize in its closest form as chapatis(India) or tortillas(Mexico).
As bread has been a staple food for thousands of years, and the process of making bread likely developed gradually over time. However, here is a general overview of how bread is believed to have been invented:
1)Discovery of wild grains: The story of bread begins with the discovery of wild grains by early human societies. Around 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to an agricultural one. They began cultivating wild cereal grains such as wheat, barley, and rye.
2)Grinding grains: Once people started growing cereal crops, they needed a way to process them. They likely started by pounding the grains with rocks to remove the husks and then grinding them into a coarse flour using stones or grinding tools.
3)Mixing flour and water: At some point, someone may have accidentally left a mixture of flour and water exposed to the air. Natural yeasts present in the environment settled on the mixture and began to ferment, causing it to rise. This fermentation process created the first leavened bread.
4)Experimentation and refinement: As people became more familiar with the process, they likely began experimenting with different grains, ratios of flour and water, and cooking methods. They discovered that using fermented dough as a starter for the next batch of bread could produce consistent results and improve the flavor and texture.
5)Development of baking techniques: The earliest bread was likely cooked on hot stones or in primitive ovens made from clay or mud. Over time, advancements in pottery and baking techniques led to the development of more sophisticated ovens, such as those heated by fire. These ovens allowed for more controlled baking and helped to refine the art of breadmaking.
6)Cultural significance: Bread quickly became a staple food in many cultures, and its production and consumption became intertwined with social, religious, and cultural practices. Bread took on symbolic meanings and became a central element in rituals, celebrations, and daily life.
It's important to note that the process of breadmaking evolved differently in various parts of the world, and different cultures have their own unique bread-making traditions. The invention of bread was a significant milestone in human history, marking a transition from a nomadic lifestyle to settled agricultural communities and laying the foundation for the development of civilizations.